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American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Havell plate no. 40
Date: 1821
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Medium: Watercolor, graphite, black ink, pastel, black chalk, and gouache with touches of glazing on paper, laid on card
Dimensions: Mat: 29 x 23 in. (73.7 x 58.4 cm) Sheet: 18 15/16 × 11 11/16 in. (48.1 × 29.7 cm)
Place made: North America, United States
Description: Female, above; male, below
Credit Line: Purchased for the Society by public subscription from Mrs. John J. Audubon
Object Number: 1863.17.40
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Inscribed: Inscribed at lower left in brown and black ink over graphite[erased]: "No 8. Plate 40. / Drawn from Nature by John. J. Audubon / Louisianna August 13th 1821"; at lower center: "American Redstart Male 1. F. 2 / Muscicapa ruticilla / Plant Vulgo Scrub-Elm. / Ostrya Virginica"; birds numbered lower and upper respectively: "1"; "2"

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The background flora has been identified as Eastern Hop Hornbeam or Ironwood (Ostrya virginiaca). The female redstart may have been a later addition to the painting.


"John James Audubon's Birds of North America: The Original Watercolors," New-York Historical Society, April 8- September 14, 1985.