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American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), Havell plate no. 431
Date: 1838
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Medium: Watercolor, graphite, gouache, black ink, and pastel with glazes on paper, laid on card
Dimensions: Sheet (paper): 33 1/4 × 24 3/16 in. (84.5 × 61.4 cm) Mat: 41 x 31 in. (104.1 x 78.7 cm)
Place made: Europe, England, London
Description: Adult male
Credit Line: Purchased for the Society by public subscription from Mrs. John J. Audubon
Object Number: 1863.17.431
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Audubon first saw a flamingo in 1832 but was unable to procure a flamingo specimen until 1838 from Cuba.


"John James Audubon's Birds of North America: The Original Watercolors," New-York Historical Society, April 8–September 14, 1985.

"Audubon's Aviary," New-York Historical Society, February 15–March 20, 2005.

"Audubon's Aviary: Something Old, Something Borrowed, But Most Things New," New-York Historical Society, February 13–April 5, 2009.