Skip navigation

Object Name: Landscape
Date: 1858
Related People:
Medium: Oil on canvas
Dimensions: Unframed: 30 × 48 1/8 in. (76.2 × 122.2 cm) Framed: 41 1/8 × 59 1/4 × 4 1/4 in. (104.5 × 150.5 × 10.8 cm)
Description: Landscape depicting the Cayambe, a volcano in Ecuador about 20, 000 feet high, on the line of the Equator; lush greenery with a pond in foreground; reflective river in middleground; stone pedestal in foreground on left; group of houses to far left; large volcano with mountain range in center; clear sky with traces of clouds.
Credit Line: The Robert L. Stuart Collection, the gift of his widow Mrs. Mary Stuart
Object Number: S-91
Send to a Friend
Inscribed: Inscribed at lower left: "F.E. Church / 1858"

Gallery Label:

Cayambe was commissioned at the apex of Church's career by the New York City refiner, Robert L. Stuart.


"Domestic Art Gossip," The Crayon, March 1858, pp. 87-8.

"Painting at the Lenox Library," The Critic: a Weekly Review of Literature and the Arts (18865-1898), Feb. 25, 1893, Vol. 19, No. 591, p. 120.

"Early American Landscape and Genre Painters Seen to Advantage in the Picture Galleries of the Public Library," The New York Times, Aug. 27, 1911, p. SM15.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, M. and M. Karolik Collection of American Paintings 1815 to 1865, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1949, pp. 162-4.

National Collection of Fine Arts, Frederic Edwin Church. An Exhibition Organized by the National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 1966, pp. 10, 32.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, American Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA: Museum of Fine Arts, 1969, Vol. I, p. 213.

Koke, Richard J., American Landscape and Genre Paintings in the New York Historical Society, Vol. I, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1982, pp. 179-80.

Manthorne, Katherine, "The Quest for a Tropic Paradise: Palm Tree as Fact and Symbol in Latin American Landscape Imagery, 1850-1875," Art Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Winter 1984), pp. 374-82.

Manthorne, Katherine, Creation & Renewal: Views of Cotopaxi by Frederic Edwin Church, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985, pp. 83-5.

Manthorne, Katherine, Tropical Renaissance: North American artists exploring Latin America, 1839-1879, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989, pp. 100-104.

Kelly, Franklin, Frederic Edwin Church, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989, pp. 5454-5, 92, 104-5.

Avery, Kevin J., Church's Great Picture: The Heart of the Andes, New York, NY: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993, pp. 28-31.

Blaugrund, Annette, The Tenth Street Studio Building: Artist-Entrepreneurs from the Hudson River School to the American Impressionists, Southampton, NY: The Parrish Art Museum, 1997, pp. 74, 95, 137.

Vallano, Fabienne-Charlotte Oraezie, Alle radici dell'etica ambientale: pensiero sulla natura, wilderness e creativita artistica negli Stati Uniti del XIX secolo, Firenze, Italy, 1993, pp. 355-410.

Troyen, Carol, Moore, Charlotte Emans, and Diamond, Priscilla Kate, American Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston, MA: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1997, n.p.

Carr, Gerald L., In Search of the Promised Land: Paintings by Frederic Edwin Church, New York, NY: Berry-Hill Galleries, Inc., 2000, pp. 11-7, 61-75, 144, 191.

Howat, John K., Frederic Church, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 54-6, 75-6.

Viveros-Faune, Christian, "The Promised Land," New York Press, May 2000, n.p.

Stevens, Mark, "A View with Some Room," New York Magazine (, May 15, 2000.

Goodrich, John, "Frederic Edwin Church: In Search of the Promised Land,", June 1, 2000.

Belli, Gabriella, Giacomoni, Paola, Cavina, Anna Ottani, Curators, Montagna: arte, scienza, mito da Durer a Warhol, Milan, Italy: Skira, 2003, p. 357.


"Frederic Edwin Church," National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, October 8, 1989–January 28, 1990.

"Restored Visions: Recently Conserved Paintings from the Collection," New-York Historical Society, November 5, 1992–January 3, 1993.

"Paintings and Patronage: The Tenth Street Studios," Parrish Art Museum, Southampton, NY, August 21–November 16, 1997.

"America: The New World in 19th Century Painting," Osterreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna, Austria, March 17–June 6, 1999.

"In Search of the Promised Land: Frederic Edwin Church and Exploration," Berry-Hill Galleries, Inc., New York, NY, April 25–June 30, 2000.

"Paisaje Americano: Explorar el Eden/The American Landscape: Exploring Eden," Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid Spain, September 27, 2000–January 14, 2001.

"Masterworks of American 19th Century Painting," New-York Historical Society, June 15, 2002–August 4, 2003.

"The Course of Empire: Thomas Cole and the Hudson River School Landscape Tradition, Selections from the New-York Historical Society," New York State Museum, Albany, NY, August 23–November 30, 2003.

"Mountain: From Leonardo to Beuys between Science and Art," Museo d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto, Rovereto, Italy, December 19, 2003–April 17, 2004.

"Frederic Church at Home: Treasures from the Artist's Collection at Olana," Fenimore Art Museum, Cooperstown, NY, June 19–September 18, 2005.

"Nature and the American Vision," New-York Historical Society, March 13, 2005–January 25, 2008; April 4, 2008-January 25, 2009; April 17, 2009-July 12, 2009.

Adelson Gallery, New York, NY, January 11, 2008–March 3, 2008.

"Nueva York 1613-1945," El Museo del Barrio, September 17, 2010–January 9, 2011.

"A Hudson River School Legacy: The Newman Bequest and Other Gifts," New-York Historical Society, March 24, 2017–June 4, 2017.

"Collector's Choice: Highlights from the Permanent Collections," New-York Historical Society, August 19, 2016-July, 2018.